Natural Gas

OIL & GAS DEVELOPMENT AT PIT

Oil & Natural Gas Development Arrives at Pittsburgh International Airport

Thank you for your interest in the Oil & Natural Gas Development project that is made possible through a public-private partnership between CONSOL Energy, Allegheny County and the Allegheny County Airport Authority (ACAA). You can find up-to-date information on key project milestones and progress as we finalize our plans to begin activity and deliver economic value to the Greater Pittsburgh Region.

This strong partnership has the potential to be a $1 billion opportunity that will further distinguish southwestern Pennsylvania and the surrounding Appalachian Basin as the new global Energy Capital. The region's energy renaissance continues to drive increased energy independence, jobs, economic development and investment in our infrastructure.

CONSOL Energy takes its license to operate very seriously and is approaching the PIT project with an unwavering focus on its core values of safety, compliance and continuous improvement. That focus will allow us to fully and responsibly leverage the once-in-a- generation opportunity associated with this project. With ACAA as a trusted partner, we intend to make it a flagship endeavor that everyone can be proud of.

  • Updates
    • Progress to Date

      CONSOL Energy and ACAA have formed a strong partnership that has enabled us to work diligently and aggressively to refine development plans with the key stakeholders involved in this process so that we can move into the implementation phase and begin to generate benefits for the residents of southwestern Pennsylvania.

      Our teams hold bi-weekly meetings to coordinate efforts and map out the drilling plan, operational considerations, safety issues and communications plans. We are currently evaluating the locations of the well sites and water impoundments that CONSOL Energy would like to use to access the natural gas at the airport property.

      The plan outlines six well pad locations and three centralized water impoundments and proposes a total of 47 Marcellus wells, with the future potential to drill Upper Devonian wells. These are largely dictated by topographical and environmental features and while they make temporary impacts, it is critical that these locations are chosen so as to not obstruct future airport growth.

      CONSOL Energy is hopeful that the Upper Devonian horizon can be built into its operational objectives for the airport project. However, the company will not have clarity on its potential until it begins drilling and can conduct analysis of core testing, which is estimated to occur in Q3 2014.

      CONSOL Energy projects that construction of the well sites, centralized impoundments and pipelines will begin in second quarter 2014. Drilling activity is expected to commence in July 2014 with two vertical rigs. Upon the start of horizontal rig operations, the vertical rig count will be reduced to one and both units will run for the duration of the project through 2018.

      The three proposed centralized impoundments are consistent with CONSOL Energy's efforts to reduce our environmental impact and surface footprint across all of our operations. These impoundments will enable us to continue to recycle 100% of our flow back water and reduce truck traffic on and around airport property.

      Approximately 17 miles of gas line (11 on ACAA property) and 12 miles of water line will be utilized to deliver gas to market and provide water for well completions.

      CONSOL Energy has no plans to construct new public roads on airport property and will be able to rely on existing roads without any disruption to daily airport traffic.

      The drilling plan does call for construction of several access roads on and adjacent to airport property.

      The field survey portion of the Environmental Assessment is underway to assess the potential impacts of these sites. The first draft of the environmental assessment was submitted to the FAA in September 2013.

      The FAA has reviewed the Environmental Assessment and has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact/Record of Decision for Oil and Gas Drilling at Pittsburgh International Airport.

      CONSOL Energy has been working with Findlay Township Water Authority who, with support from Moon and Robinson townships, will supply the water required for completion operations at Pittsburgh International Airport.

      This will result in significant additional income for the townships and is consistent with our commitment to partner with and reinvest in the communities where we operate. It will also reduce truck traffic into and out of the airport property.

  • PIT Proposed Drilling Plan
    • The plan outlines six well pad locations and three centralized water impoundments and proposes a total of 47 Marcellus wells, with the future potential to drill Upper Devonian wells. These are largely dictated by topographical and environmental features and while they make temporary impacts, it is critical that these locations are chosen so as to not obstruct future airport growth.

      CONSOL Energy is hopeful that the Upper Devonian horizon can be built into its operational objectives for the airport project. However, the company will not have clarity on its potential until it begins drilling and can conduct analysis of core testing, which is estimated to occur in Q3 2014. Any development of the Upper Devonian formation would occur on the existing pad locations and utilize the same infrastructure to maintain operational efficiency, minimize environmental impacts, and maximize production potential.

      CONSOL Energy projects that construction of the well sites, centralized impoundments and pipelines will begin in second quarter 2014. Drilling activity is expected to commence in July 2014 with two vertical rigs.

      Upon the start of horizontal rig operations, the vertical rig count will be reduced to one and both units will run for the duration of the project through 2018.

      The three proposed centralized impoundments are consistent with CONSOL Energy's efforts to reduce our environmental impact and surface footprint across all of our operations. These impoundments will enable us to continue to recycle 100% of our flow back water and reduce truck traffic on and around airport property.

      Approximately 17 miles of gas line (11 on ACAA property) and 12 miles of water line will be utilized to deliver gas to market and provide water for well completions. Just as with the drilling pad locations, these are largely dictated by topographical and environmental features and it is critical that these locations are chosen so as to not obstruct future airport growth.

      CONSOL Energy has no plans to construct new public roads on airport property and will be able to rely on existing roads without any disruption to daily airport traffic. The drilling plan does call for construction of several access roads on and adjacent to airport property.

      Environmental Assessment for Oil and Gas Drilling at Pittsburgh International Airport

  • Economic Impact
    • The initial payment of $50M, which was paid by CONSOL Energy to Allegheny County upon the signing of the lease in March, will be used by the ACAA to lower bond rates that will enable the airport to reduce gate fees in an effort to attract more flights to Pittsburgh International Airport.

      And we are already seeing the positive impact.

      On July 1, 2013, as a direct result of CONSOL Energy's initial payment under the ACAA lease agreement, the average cost per enplaned passenger was reduced by 3.8 percent, landing fees were reduced by 12.2 percent, terminal fees were trimmed by 0.3 percent, and ramp fees were slashed by 5.2 percent.

      Effective January 2014, the cost per enplaned passenger at PIT will drop from $14.11 to $13.92, which is in addition to the $.55 reduction made in July 2013. This is the lowest rate for airlines flying into PIT since 2008.

      Reducing operating costs for airlines serving Pittsburgh International Airport, will position PIT to become more competitive and marketable to major airlines and can contribute to improving air service in Pittsburgh.

      More recently, the ACAA announced that Southwest Airlines launched new daily nonstop service to Nashville International Airport, American Airlines added new daily nonstop Pittsburgh to Los Angeles and Delta Air Lines will be adding Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, and Nassau, Bahamas Saturday-only nonstop service beginning December 21.

      CONSOL Energy is adding to its workforce to support the significant projected growth of its Marcellus drilling program, which includes the airport project. The company anticipates hiring 50-75, with openings primarily for drilling and completions engineers. The multiplier for each of those hires is 4-6 contractor or support jobs for each full time job, so the total number and variety of job openings increases dramatically.

      To learn more about Allegheny County Airport Authority, visit www.flypittsburgh.com.

  • Safety & Compliance
    • CONSOL Energy takes its license to operate very seriously.

      Through our public-private partnership, the Allegheny County Airport Authority and CONSOL Energy are making every effort to work with local municipalities to ensure the safety of and reduce the impact of the oil and gas development project at PIT on residents. Protecting land, water and communities is our highest priority. We share the public's expectation that the energy we need will be produced safely.

      We have an unwavering focus on core values of safety and compliance, which drive results across all of CONSOL Energy's operations and allow the company to protect its employees, contractors, neighbors AND the environment. CONSOL Energy's Gas Division employees have operated since 1994 without an exception and more recently, in September 2013, CONSOL Energy's West Virginia Gas Operations' contractors were honored at West Virginia University for recording one million exposure hours without a lost-time accident between July 17, 2012 to July 31, 2013. This is the first time a Marcellus or Utica division of CONSOL Energy's contractor workforce has reached this milestone. More than 80 contract service companies contributed to the one-million hour accomplishment.

      While CONSOL ENERGY works diligently every day to prevent incidents, we also prepare for the unexpected. We work to minimize impacts by responding quickly and effectively to any situation. We develop emergency action plans and maintain our response capabilities by training our people and conducting safety exercises in the field.

      Wherever we operate, we work closely with local governments, respect our neighbors and invest in the community.

      Just as CONSOL Energy does in other areas of its operational footprint, the company and ACAA will partner with local emergency response agencies in the townships around PIT to ensure good communication, coordination, and preparedness.

      CONSOL Energy has been working with Findlay Township Water Authority who, with support from Moon and Robinson townships, will supply the water required for completion operations at Pittsburgh International Airport. This will result in significant additional income for the townships and is consistent with our commitment to partner with and reinvest in the communities where we operate. It will also reduce truck traffic into and out of the airport property.

  • Water Management & Hydraulic Fracturing
    • Water Management

      CONSOL Energy is the first multi-fuel energy producer to create a water division, which allows us to focus more attention on a wide variety of operational objectives, as well as increase our awareness of the environment and the need to develop alternative methods of utilizing, protecting and treating water. In 2012, CONSOL Energy's Water Division was created as a vehicle to develop water-related services, evaluate emerging treatment technologies, champion the reuse of treated mine water and pursue a strategic approach to water asset management.

      Water continues to be a key resource in our value chain. In support of our mining and natural gas operations, CONSOL Energy operates 102 waste water treatment plants, which offer a wide spectrum of treatment technologies from conventional sewage and acid mine drainage treatment to state-of-the-art zero liquid discharge (ZLD). All of these facilities are designed to protect the environment by minimizing impacts to local water resources, maximizing recycling of process waters, and championing the repurposing of treated mine water, i.e. mine influenced waters (MIW's), as a first-run feedstock for industrial consumption.

      In an effort to limit the impact of our operations on water resources, CONSOL Energy strives to minimize the volume of public water used in support of its coal and gas operations. One major component of our water conservation efforts that continues to play a central role in our operating strategy is the recycling of process water in both our coal and gas operations. Our coal preparation facilities routinely re-circulate process water to reduce the demand for make-up water, such as freshwater, while our gas operations continue to recycle 100% of our Marcellus Shale flow-back water.

      CONSOL Energy has been working with Findlay Township Water Authority who, with support from Moon and Robinson townships, will supply the water required for completion operations at Pittsburgh International Airport. This will result in significant additional income for the townships and is consistent with our commitment to partner with and reinvest in the communities where we operate. It will also reduce truck traffic into and out of the airport property.

      Hydraulic Fracturing

      CONSOL Energy values the responsible use of our land and other natural resources as we work to power the nation. Throughout the Marcellus Shale, we have achieved strong operational efficiencies, while at the same time protecting the environment and the communities we serve.

      The Marcellus Shale has the potential to sustain our country's energy needs for decades. A tested, proven technology called hydraulic fracturing allows us to access the natural gas. A mixture of water, sand and exceptionally diluted additives - many of them ingredients regularly found in common household products - is used in the process. When use of the water-based mixture is complete, CONSOL Energy recycles and reuses it to reduce our volume of wastewater for proper disposal.

      CONSOL Energy voluntarily discloses the composition of the hydraulic fracturing fluid used in our Marcellus Shale operations.

      A Fluid Situation: Typical Solution Used in Hydraulic Fracturing

      On average, 99.5% of fracturing fluids are composed of freshwater, and compounds are injected into deep shale gas formations and are typically confined by many thousands of feet or rock layers.

      Compound* Purpose Common Application
      Acids Helps dissolve minerals and initiate fissure in rock (pre-fracture) Swimming pool cleaner
      Glutaraldehyde Eliminates bacteria in the water Disinfectant; Sterilizer for medical and dental equipment
      Sodium chloride Allows a delayed breakdown of the gel polymer chains Table Salt
      N, n-Dimethyl formamide Prevents the corrosion of the pipe Used in pharmaceuticals, acrylic fibers and plastics
      Borate salts Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases Used in laundry detergents, hand soaps and cosmetics
      Polyacrylamide Minimizes friction between fluid and pipe Water treatment, soil conditioner
      Petroleum distillates "Slicks" the water to minimize friction Make-up remover, laxatives, and candy
      Guar gum Thickens the water to suspend the sand Thickener used in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, sauces, and salad dressing
      Citric acid Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Food additive; food and beverages; lemon juice
      Potassium chloride Creates a brine carrier fluid Low sodium table salt substitute
      Ammonium bisulfite Removes oxygen from the water to protect the pipe from corrosion Cosmetics, food and beverage processing, water treatment
      Sodium or potassium carbonate Maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers Washing soda, detergents, soap, water softener, glass and ceramics
      Proppant Allows the fissures to remain open so the gas can escape Drinking water filtration, play sand
      Ethylene glycol Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Automotive antifreeze, household cleansers, deicing, and caulk
      Isopropanol Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid Glass cleaner, antiperspirant, and hair color

      Source: DOE, GWPC: Modern Gas Shale
      Development in the United States:
      A Primer (2009)

      * The specific compounds used in a given fracturing operation will vary depending on source water quality and site, and specific characteristics of the target formation. The compounds listed above are representative of the major material components used in the hydraulic fracturing of natural gas shales. Compositions are approximate.

  • Public Outreach & Materials
    • Community Outreach

      During the review process, CONSOL Energy performed detailed due diligence on both the Pittsburgh International Airport and Allegheny County Airport properties to determine the production potential of both locations. CONSOL Energy also participated in a required public hearing at Robert Morris University on February 7, during which CONSOL Energy president Nicholas J. DeIuliis delivered a presentation to an audience of over 300 area residents, protestors and reports about CONSOL Energy's energy production history in the regions, unique perspective, core values, and commitment to the communities where it operates. Several CONSOL Energy contractors were also able to address the audience in support of CONSOL Energy, describing the company as a good partner and dedicated to the safety and compliance of their employees.

      Allegheny County Airport Authority, Allegheny County, and CONSOL Energy took the public education effort a step further by jointly hosting an Open House event in Findlay Township, where the majority of the Pittsburgh International Airport property is located, on February 18. This event provided an opportunity for area residents to learn more about what they should expect when natural gas development at the airport begins, CONSOL Energy's drilling process, environmental protection measures, and the Marcellus shale formation in Findlay Township.

      Travelers and visitors to Pittsburgh International Airport can expect to see increased communications about the proposed drilling project beginning this year and continuing for the duration of the project.

      As part of the Environmental Assessment Process, CONSOL Energy, the ACAA and the FAA will host regular meetings designed to inform and update the public and key stakeholders of the activity we are conducting at the airport. The first public workshop was held on August 27, 2013 at the Pittsburgh Airport Marriott. The second and final public workshop is scheduled for 4:30 - 6:30 PM on December 17, 2013 at the Pittsburgh Airport Marriott.  For downloadable information, click here.

      CONSOL Energy is working with the ACAA to develop a public education campaign that will provide information on hydraulic fracturing and planned drilling and completions activity at Pittsburgh International Airport.

      CONSOL Energy and ACAA are working together to develop a safety and emergency response plan that will be presented to airport and local emergency responders so that they can understand the unique aspects of well site and pipeline safety. Training and simulated emergency drills will be scheduled and implemented before active drilling begins.

      Please click on the following links to download the exhibit boards from the first Public Workshop: Exhibit Board 1 | Exhibit Board 2

       

  • Frequently Asked Questions
    • The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania oversees shale gas development responsibly under its effective oversight and comprehensive set of laws and regulations and is the recognized global leader when it comes to responsible and objective regulation of this opportunity.

      Through ACT 13, which went into effect in 2012, Pennsylvania has enhanced environmental protection standards, which we meet and exceed.

      Where will the access roads to the well pads be located and which public roads will be the most heavily traveled?

      CONSOL Energy has no plans to construct new public roads on airport property and will be able to rely on existing roads without any disruption to daily airport traffic. The drilling plan does call for construction of several access roads located adjacent to airport property.

      Will airport access and parking be affected?

      No.

      Where is CONSOL Energy getting the water it needs to support its drilling activity?

      CONSOL Energy will utilize several water sources to support the PIT drilling project. The company is currently in discussions with local municipalities to serve as sources of fresh water in support of our drilling operations at Pittsburgh International Airport. This will result in significant additional income for the townships and is consistent with our commitment to partner with and reinvest in the communities where we operate.

      CONSOL Energy is currently reusing 100 percent of the fracturing fluids and water produced with the natural gas and will do so during the airport project. This reduces our freshwater consumption as well as our need for water trucking, transfer and disposal. We also use water pipelines to lessen the need for tanker trucks often used for water transport.

      How will the ACAA use the money CONSOL paid or the lease at the airport? When can we expect to see improvements at the airport?

      The initial payment of $50M, which was paid by CONSOL Energy to Allegheny County upon the signing of the lease in March 2013, will be used by the ACAA to lower bond rates that will enable the airport to reduce gate fees in an effort to attract more flights to Pittsburgh International Airport. We are already seeing a positive impact. On July 1, 2013, as a direct result of CONSOL Energy's initial payment under the ACAA lease agreement, the average cost per enplaned passenger was reduced by 3.8 percent, landing fees were reduced by 12.2 percent, terminal fees were trimmed by 0.3 percent, and ramp fees were slashed by 5.2 percent. Reducing operating costs for airlines serving Pittsburgh International Airport, will position PIT to become more competitive and marketable to major airlines and can contribute to improving air service in Pittsburgh.

      These funds will also be used to fund capital projects that area residents will see right away, including road paving at the airport and a major renovation of the central rotunda in the airside terminal, which is underway.

      How much money will be generated by oil & gas development at PIT?

      CONSOL Energy cannot accurately estimate how much gas and related royalty revenue will be generated by the PIT lease until we begin the completions and production phases of development, which we anticipate will be in 2015. Generally, the total deal could be worth $1 billion.

      What we do know is that Act 13 has generated more than $202 million through an impact fee assessed on unconventional wells drilled in 2012. The state also collected more than $204 million last fall, bringing the total to more than $406 million in less than eight months, with the majority of the money going to local communities.

      Nearly 240,000 Pennsylvanians are employed directly and indirectly within the oil and gas industry. The $204.2 million in impact fee revenue is also in addition to the over $1.8 billion in corporate, sales and personal income taxes generated by the industry since 2006, including $303 million last year.

      CONSOL Energy paid over $15 million dollars in impact fees for its combined 2011 and 2012 drilling activity. That number will grow as development continues and we are confident that the PIT project will be a significant contributor.

      Additionally, the abundance of low-cost natural gas has driven electric and natural gas prices down nearly 40 percent since 2008, saving Pennsylvania businesses and consumers over $2 billion annually. After importing 75 percent of its natural gas just five years ago, Pennsylvania has become a net exporter of gas for the first time in more than 100 year.

      How many jobs will the airport drilling project create? How can I apply?

      CONSOL Energy is adding to its workforce to support the significant projected growth of its Marcellus drilling program, which includes the airport project. The company anticipates hiring 50-75 people in its Gas Division over the next six quarters, with openings primarily for drilling and completions engineers.

      The multiplier for each of those hires is 4-6 contractor or support jobs for each full time job, so the total number and variety of job openings increases dramatically.

      Qualified candidates interested in applying for CONSOL Energy positions should visit the careers page of the company's Web site at www.consolenergy.com/careers or CONSOL Energy's Careers Facebook page.

      Where will CONSOL dispose of its wastewater?

      CONSOL Energy is committed to safely and responsibly managing hydraulic fracturing fluids, wastewater and produced water.

      After the hydraulic fracturing process is complete and the well begins to produce natural gas, a portion of the water used during the fracturing process also flows back to the surface impoundment. In our Marcellus operations, this water is stored temporarily in lined pits until it is reused in future fracturing jobs.

      CONSOL Energy is currently reusing 100 percent of the fracturing fluids and water produced with the natural gas. This reduces our freshwater consumption as well as our need for water trucking, transfer and disposal. We also use water pipelines to lessen the need for tanker trucks often used for water transport. Some wastewater will be transported off site and disposed of in UIC wells.

      Well sites are designed to protect the land surface, and we take great pride to restore the land to its original contours after drilling.

      Will there be UIC wells built on airport property?

      No

      How long will it take to drill each pad?

      It depends on lateral count on each pad, but typically 4 weeks per well (2 weeks per vertical and 2 weeks per horizontal).

      How long will the entire drilling project take?

      4 to 4.4 years.

      What is the schedule for the drilling pads?

      The tentative schedule calls for Pad 2 to be drilled first, followed by pads 1, 4, 6, 3, and 5, in that sequence. We anticipate that drilling will begin on Pad 2 in July 2014 with two vertical rigs. Upon the start of horizontal rig operations, the vertical rig count will be reduced to one and both units will run for the duration of the project through 2018.

      How many personnel will work on each pad?

      This is determined by the phase of the operation, but typically 15 to 20 people are on-site during the drilling and completion phases.

      What is the status of Pad #2 near Imperial Point? Was that location changed to make sure there would be no noise impacts?

      CONSOL Energy has engaged a consultant to conduct a sound study, which entailed recording sound levels at a range of lengths from several of its current Marcellus locations during various stages of development. This process has been completed and early results indicate that drilling activities from the current pad locations will meet the township ordinance and will not result in a significant impact.

      What about noise impacts from Pad #6?

      Again, based on the early results of the sound study we just completed and the fact that Route 376 lies between Pad #6 and the nearest housing development, we do not believe there will be any significant impact to residents of that development.

      Will there be any traffic issues associated with Pad #3?

      We do not anticipate that Pad #3's location in the vicinity of Hookstown Grade Road will create any traffic issues. However, if that potential arises, we will conduct a traffic study at that location and if the results recommend mitigation, those plans will be implemented.

      How will the PIT drilling activity impact property values?

      There are no patterns or trends to suggest that natural gas development is impacting, or reducing, property values in and around where these activities occur. Broadly speaking, shale development is providing a huge boost to landowners and communities.

      A recent study done by Penn State University provides in-depth analysis of changes in market value at the county level and show no real pattern associated with Marcellus Shale drilling activity. There is no clear pattern to average changes in market value or assessed value, relative to the level of drilling activity.

      What are plans for processing the natural gas?

      CONSOL Energy is still in the process of confirming a midstream partner to build and manage a gas processing facility. We anticipate that we will have this finalized during Q3 of this year as it will be incorporated in the final Environmental Assessment.

      What about the Upper Devonian wells?

      There is future potential to drill Upper Devonian wells and CONSOL Energy is hopeful that this horizon can be built into its operational objectives for the airport project. However, the company will not have clarity on its potential until it begins drilling and can conduct analysis of core testing, which is estimated to occur in Q3 2014. Any development of the Upper Devonian formation would occur on the existing pad locations and utilize the same infrastructure to maintain operational efficiency, minimize environmental impacts, and maximize production potential.

      What is your approach to road repair and maintenance?

      Consistent with our core values of safety, compliance and continuous improvement, CONSOL Energy enters into Excess Maintenance agreements with every municipality where we operate. Upon approval/agreement between municipalities and CONSOL, these contracts are signed and bind us to the terms of the agreement, which typically require that we, as the operator, repair roads during and upon completion of our operations if they are damaged and become unsafe to residents and motorists. We are proactive and do not wait for unsafe or damaged conditions to occur. When dealing with the townships (in CPA) we do one of two things: if we use the road as is, we bond it, but more likely than not we draft a one page document requesting permission at our cost to upgrade the road ahead of our operations so we can avoid any downtime.

      Why did CONSOL make the decision to not build more roads as part of the project?

      CONSOL Energy will be able to rely on existing roads without any disruption to daily airport traffic to operate on the airport property. These existing private airport roads will be upgraded at CONSOL Energy's sole expense. The drilling plan does call for construction of several access roads located adjacent to airport property.

      Which entity is monitoring air emissions at the well site?

      The Allegheny County Health Department. CONSOL will periodically provide to them reports on air emissions and computer models upon request. Air emissions will be quite low at the wellhead after construction due to the fact that are few pieces of equipment there - only the wellhead and tank for water, all of the gas and natural gas liquids will be pumped offsite.

  • Public Comment Form
    • As part of the Environmental Assessment process, this comment form is being provided to the public to register questions and comments. Responses will be provided in the Environmental Assessment document. This will enable CONSOL Energy and the ACAA to address any major concerns voiced by the public. Completed forms can be emailed to info@FlyPittsburgh.com or mailed to Oil & Gas Development Environmental Assessment, Allegheny County Airport Authority, Pittsburgh International Airport, P.O. Box 12370, Pittsburgh, PA 15231.

      Please click here to download and print the form: http://flypittsburgh.com/energy_form.pdf

      CONSOL Energy and ACAA will also provide an opportunity to submit comments during their next public meeting. Meeting details will be posted at www.FlyPittsburgh.com/energy when confirmed.